Here’s a checklist you can use for building your own first aid kit.
|Plastic bandages||Transpore tape||Alcohol preps|
|Adhesive bandages||Micropore tape||Gauze|
|Extra large plastic bandages||Iodine prep pads||Fingertip bandages|
|Sterile pads||Antiseptic towelettes||Knuckle bandages|
|Antiseptic ointment||Ammonia inhalant||Sponge packs|
|Instant ice packs||Sterile eye wash||Elastic bandages|
|Eye pads||Safety pins||First aid cream|
|Bandage scissors||Tweezers||Butterfly bandages|
|Watertight utility box for contents||Burn gel to treat burns||Burn bandages|
|Adhesive spots||Extra large strips||Surgical tape|
A nosebleed is sudden bleeding from one or both nostrils, and may result from a variety of events: a punch in the nose, breathing dry air, allergies, or for no apparent reason. To stop the flow of blood from a common nosebleed, use these steps:
1. Sit or stand upright to slow the flow of blood in the veins of the nose. Do not tip your head back.
2. Pinch your nose with your thumb and forefinger for 10 minutes without relieving pressure. Breathe through your mouth during this time.
3. If the bleeding continues despite these efforts, consult your doctor or call 911.
Cuts and Scrapes
Small cuts and scrapes usually don’t demand a visit to the emergency room of your local hospital, but proper care is
necessary to keep infections or other complications from occurring.
When dealing with minor wounds, keep the following guidelines in
1. Stop the bleeding by applying pressure using a gauze pad or clean cloth. If the bleeding persists after several
minutes of applying pressure, get immediate medical attention.
2. Keep the wound clean by washing the area with mild soap and water and removing any dirt. Dry the area
gently with a clean cloth, and cover the wound with a protective bandage. Change the bandage at least once a
day. If the wound becomes tender to the touch and red or oozes fluid, see your doctor.
3. If your cut is more serious and the bleeding does not stop on its own or the cut is large, deep, or rough on the
edges, try to stop the bleeding by applying pressure directly to the injury using a sterilized gauze pad or clean
cloth. Maintain pressure on the wound until the bleeding stops. Then consult your physician. A tetanus booster
may be required if you haven’t had one for a while.
Burns can be caused by fire, the sun, chemicals, heated objects or fluids, and electricity. They can be minor problems or life-threatening emergencies. Distinguishing a minor burn from a more serious burn involves determining the degree of damage to the tissues of the body. If you are not sure how serious the burn is,
seek emergency medical help.
First-degree burns are those in which only the outer layer of skin is burned. The skin is usually red and some swelling and pain may occur. Unless the burn involves large portions of the body, it can be treated at home.
Second-degree burns are those in which the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin is also burned. In these burns, the skin reddens intensely and blisters develop. Severe pain and swelling also occur. If a second-degree burn is no larger than 2 or 3 inches in diameter, it can be treated at home. If the burn covers a larger area, seek medical attention. You may need a tetanus booster.
Third-degree burns are the most serious and involve all layers of skin. Fat, nerves, muscles, and even bones may be affected. Areas may be charred black or appear a dry white. If nerve damage is substantial, there may be no pain at all. These burns should receive emergency medical attention.
Follow these steps when treating minor burns at home:
1.If the skin is not broken, run cool water over the burn for several minutes.
2.Cover the burn with a sterile bandage or clean cloth.
3.Take aspirin or acetaminophen to relieve any swelling or pain.
Seek emergency treatment immediately for major burns. Until an emergency unit arrives, follow these steps:
1. Remove the person from the source of the burn (fire, electrical current, etc.).
2. If the person is not breathing, begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately (see Mouth-to-Mouth
3. Remove all smoldering clothing to stop further burning.
4. If the person is breathing sufficiently, cover the burned area with a cool, moist, sterile bandage or clean cloth. Do not place any creams, ointments or ice on the burned area or break blisters.
Generalized Tonic Clonic (Grand Mal):
Look for medical identification.
Protect from nearby hazards.
Loosen tie of shirt collar.
Protect head from injury.
Turn on side to keep airway clear.
Reassure when consciousness returns.
If single seizure lasted less than five minutes, ask if hospital evaluation is wanted.
If multiple seizures, or if one seizure lasts longer than five minutes, call an ambulance. If person is pregnant, injured or diabetic, call for aid at once.
Do not put any hard implement in the mouth.
Do not try to hold tongue. It cannot be swallowed.
Do not try to give liquids during or just after the seizure.
Do not use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside or unless water has been
Do not restrain.
Mouth to Mouth Resuscitation
Before you can begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, you must be sure the person’s airway is clear. If the person does not begin breathing once the airway is clear, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
To begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, position the victim so you can check for breathing by laying the person on his or her back on a flat, firm surface. Place yourself next to the person’s neck and shoulders. Extend the person’s neck gently, and open the mouth and airway by lifting the chin.
To determine whether the victim is breathing, place your ear above the person’s mouth and listen for the sounds of inhaling or exhaling. Feel for air against your cheek and watch for motion in the victim’s chest.
If the victim is not breathing, begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately. Pinch the victim’s nostrils closed with your thumb and forefinger. Take a deep breath, and make a seal around the victim’s mouth with your mouth. Breathe slowly into the victim’s mouth twice, checking to be sure the victim’s chest rises each time you breathe. After the second breath, turn your head, listen for air leaving the victim’s lungs and watch to see if the chest falls.
Next, check to see if the victim has a pulse. Place two fingers on the victim’s carotid artery, just to the side of the Adam’s apple, to feel for movement. If the artery is pulsating, continue mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in the same way, blowing a deep breath into the victim every 5 seconds–12 breaths every minute. If the artery is not pulsating, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Continue to breathe for the person until he or she breathes on his or her own or until professional medical help arrives.
9-1-1 is simply a telephone number used for reporting all types of emergencies – police, fire and emergency medical.
9-1-1 makes reporting emergencies fast and easy;
The 3 digit number makes it easy to remember – you no longer waste time looking up the correct number to dial in an emergency!
The 3 digit number makes it fast to dial – dialing 3 numbers is obviously quicker than dialing 7 numbers.
DO NOT program 9-1-1 into speed dials – WHY? 9-1-1 is fast and easy to dial as it is. Placing it in speed dials often
results in “accidental” calls to 9-1-1.
9-1-1 is the correct number to dial no matter where you are.
9-1-1 is the correct number to dial no matter if the emergency you are reporting is for police, fire, or emergency medical services.
9-1-1 is equipped and ready to accept calls from deaf persons utilizing a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)
9-1-1 is for emergencies only. If you call 9-1-1 for non-emergency reports, someone with a real emergency might not get through! When away from your home remember 9-1-1 is coin free from a pay telephone.
What is an emergency?
A fire, an automobile accident, a robbery, a burglary, a prowler outside your home, when someone is sick or injured so badly that they need to go to the hospital.
Non-emergency calls should be placed on normal telephone numbers which may be found in the telephone book. Calls on these lines are answered at the same location, by the same dispatchers, but they don’t tie up the “special” 9-1-1 lines.
If you need to dial 9-1-1 remember:
Stay calm! Before picking up the phone, take a deep breath and do your best to relax.
Pick up the phone, listen for dial tone, then dial 9-1-1. That’s all, just three numbers – 9 – 1 – 1.
When the dispatcher answers, simply state what you need; I need the police, I want to report a fire, I need an ambulance.
The dispatcher will then ask for the address or location of the emergency. This is very important! Do you and other
members of your family/workforce all know your address? If not, let everyone know! Better yet, mark the address by each telephone – that way it will be easy to remember. Do you know what city or township you are located in?
This is important information as well. In addition to knowing your address, it is important that emergency responders can see your house number from the street. The next time you are returning to your home at night, pretend that you are a policeman, firefighter, or paramedic trying to find your house. Can you easily see your house number from the street? If not, you have some work to do. Mark your house number in large, reflective numbers that can easily be seen from the street.
Next, the dispatcher will ask you exactly what is wrong – the “details” of your emergency. This is important information too! Do not become upset that it is “taking too long”, or that “they are asking too many questions” remember, while one dispatcher is talking to you on the phone, another dispatcher is putting your call out on radio to the emergency personnel.
Finally, the dispatcher will ask your name and telephone number.
DO NOT hang up until the dispatcher says it is okay to do so. If you are alone or frightened, we’ll stay on the phone until help arrives.
For medical emergencies, the dispatcher can transfer you to medically trained personnel who can tell you what to do until the ambulance arrives.